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Śrīmad Rāmāyaṇa and Bhagavad Gītā

Bhagavan Shri Ram preached Gita in just 18 verses in Shrimad Valmiki Ramayana, the same 18 verses were again explained by him as Sri Krishna to Arjuna in Mahabharat in 18 chapters which are collectively renowned as Bhagavad Gita. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is a detailed version of Srimad Bhagavad Gita in action. While in Gita Sri Bhagavan preached, He already shown the same to whole world through the example of his own life in Srimad Valmiki Ramayana.

While Shrimad Ramayana is called the Vedavatar, the incarnation of all Vedas, Bhagavad Gita is called Sarva-Shastram-Saaram, the abstract of all Vaidic-scriptures. Sage Valmiki wrote the biography of supreme one in order to expound the real imports of Vedas, when Paratpar Brahm Ram incarnated as son of King Dasrath, all Vedas incarnated through the mouth of Sage Valmiki as Ramayana. Bhagavad Gita is the concise version of the Vaidic-instructions to a Jiva (soul) by supreme one.

The message of Gita is there in actions in Shrimad Valmiki Ramayana. Supreme lord is the eternal preceptor of all, unlike to mundane teachers he first shows everything in his action (as shown in Shrimad Valimiki Ramayana) so that everyone could easily understand and follow him, then he preaches if it becomes necessary like he did in Gita. Here lord says in Gita:

यदि ह्यहं न वर्तेयं जातु कर्मण्यतन्द्रितः।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः।। Gita 3.23।।

O' Parth, If I, the Lord of all, did not continue to work vigilantly at all times [as per the Dharma suitable to the family and society] , then men [with incomplete knowledge] would in every way follow My path [thinking that the way adopted by the virtuous son of Vasudeva alone is the real way. And in place of winning the self, they would go to Naraka because of their failure to do what ought to be done and also because of the sin arising from non-performance of duty].

Same thing is said by Shri Rama in Valmiki Ramayana (कामवृत्तस्त्वयं लोकः कृत्स्न स्समुपवर्तते।: [VR 2.109.9] -)"If I conduct myself not vigilantly, then the entire world will behave with unrestrained actions."

As lord Krishna tells he works vigilantly so that people could learn from his actions, here comes Ramayana where people can learn the highest form of Dharma from the actions of Shri Ram, the embodiment of Dharma (मूर्तिमान-धर्म). (Here lord himself suggests People should follow only those Gurus and ideals who are really on the path of Dharma, not to those who are engaged in nonsense activities, and having no purity in life.) The prime reason of Shri Rama's incarnation was to teach the whole world by putting example of his own life. Sri Ram is seen performing actions (righteous duties) in Ramayana in order to save the world from chaos, and for the welfare of the world [for 'लोकसंग्रहम्।।Gita 3.25।।'].

From Ramayana, people can learn righteous duties and Dharma from Nari-Shiromani the best among ladies (NariNaam Uttama Vadhu) Sri Sita Ji, and the best among men (Purushottama) Shri Ram Ji.

Śrīmad Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa
Bhagavad Gītā

1. Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is Prayog-Shastra.

1. Srimad Bhagavad Gita is a Yog-Shastra.

2. In the story of Ramayana, Bhagavan Sri Ram encourages his friend Sugreeva to challenge Vali for a duel, while Sugriva was fearful of consequences.

2. In Parallel to Srimad Ramayana, in Bhagavad Gita Bhagavan Sri Krishna encourages his friend Arjuna to discard cowardliness and participate in war without being worried about the results.

3. To inculcate confidence in Sugreeva for challenging the evil Vali, Bhagavan Sri Ram shown his prowess to Sugreeva. Then Moha (delusion) was destroyed and Sandeh (doubt) of Sugreeva was removed by Sri Ram, and Sugreeva adjoined his palms in supplication to Shri Ram.

3. To inculcate confidence in Arjuna, Bhagavan Sri Krishna revealed his true identity of being supreme one, and shown his universal-form (Vishwa-Rupa) to Arjuna. Arjuna was freed from all doubts, his delusion was destroyed by Lord and then Arjuna humbly accepted He will follow the instructions of Sri Krishna.

नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत।
स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव।।Gita 18.73।।

4. Bhagavan Sri Ram asks Sugreeva to invite Vali for a duel, with assurance that He will eliminate the evil Vali who raped and abducted Sugreeva's wife Ruma. Thus for eliminating Vali, Shri Ram made Sugreeva mere token cause (निमित्तमात्रं ) .

4. Bhagavan Sri Krishna asks Arjuna to just be a mere instrument (Nimitta) in the elimination of Kaurava-s, He assures Arjuna that Kaurava-s are already killed by him. All those who have sinned have been already annihilated by him.

मयैवैते निहताः पूर्वमेव निमित्तमात्रं भव सव्यसाचिन्।। Gita 11.33।।

5. Bhagavan Sri Ram says in Ramayana "Even If the most sinful person be it even Ravana or anyone else who seeks refuge in me, I shall grant him 'Abhayam' i.e. Moksha (liberation) as well as the safety against all types of beings in this world". [VR 6.18.34b,35a]

आनय एनम् हरि श्रेष्ठ दत्तम् अस्य अभयम् मया।।
विभीषणो वा सुग्रीव यदि वा रावणः स्वयम्। [VR 6.18.34b, 35a]

5. Sri Krishna says "Even if a man of very bad conduct worships Me with one-pointed devotion, he is to be considered verily good; for he has resolved rightly". [Gita 9.30]

अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक्।
साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः।। Gita 9.30।।

गीता सुगीता कर्तव्या किमन्यैः शास्त्रविस्तरैः।
या स्वयं पद्मनाभस्य मुखपद्माद्विनिःसृता।।
(महाभारत भीष्मपर्व 43.1)

Srimad Bhagavad Gita has paramount importance to all of us as it has been instructed by the lotus-naveled Bhagavan (Śrī-Rāmābhinn-Kṛṣṇa) Himself. If (instructions of lord in) Gita is properly practiced in life, then where is the need of any other scripture?

6. Sri Ram, who is embodiment of Dharma, whatever shown in his life as teachings for the whole world, should be followed by all of us.

6. And whatever lord Sri Krishna instructed in Gita which is completely in line of Vedas should be followed by all of us.

7. Prapatti is the final message of Ramayana. Ramayana's Charama Shloka talks about Prapatti (Sharanagati). Charama-Shloka of Valmiki Ramayana:

सकृद् एव प्रपन्नाय तव अस्मि इति च याचते।।
अभयम् सर्व भूतेभ्यो ददामि एतद् व्रतम् मम।
[VR 6.18.33b, 34a]

This Charama-Shloka of Ramayana is also the essence of Vedas, Shrimad Ramayana, and Bhagavad Gita. Lord Shri Rama says He will bestow 'Abhayam', in Sanskrut 'Abhayam' is explained as Mukti (Moksha/ Liberation) as only in supreme liberation a Jiva has no Bhaya (fear) of the ocean of transmigration (in form of birth and death) and the three fold agony of material world. "Therefore, Shri Rama assures whoever surrenders to him, He gives him Abhayam i.e. Mukti (liberation or salvation) as well as complete fearlessness from all types of beings - This is his solemn pledge. [VR 6.18.33-34]".

7. As like Srimad Ramayana, Prapatti is also the real message and essence of Bhagavad Gita, and Bhagavad Gita's Charama Shloka is about Prapatti. Charama-Shloka of Bhagavad Gita:

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज।
अहं त्वा सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः।। [Gita 18.66]

Bhagavan Shri Krishna says "Abandoning all forms of rites and duties, take refuge in Me alone. I will liberate you from all sins; grieve not. "

This way lord Sri Krishna says surrenders to him to get liberation from all types of fear. This is the essence of Vedas, Srimad Ramayana and Bhagavad Gita.

8. In Shrimad Valmiki Ramayana, Shri Ram preached Gita to sorrowful and lamenting Bharat whose mind was afflicted from the grief caused by the separation of Shri Rama for next 14 years.

8. Shri Krishna preached Gita to sorrowful Arjuna whose mind was tortured by the grief.

9. In Shrimad Valmiki Ramayana, Gita is in 18 verses.

9. The same Gita was explained by Shri Krishna in 18 chapters.

After Shri Rama preached Gita to sorrowful and lamenting Bharat Ji, then Bharat ji eulogized the true divine nature of Shri Rama as the eternal great soul, the all knowing and the all-seeing personality!

अमरोपमसत्त्वस्त्वं महात्मा सत्यसङ्गरः।
सर्वज्ञः सर्वदर्शी च बुद्धिमांश्चासि राघव।।
[वाल्मीकि रामायण अयोध्या-कांड १०६.६]

O' Shri Rama (Raghava), You are the eternal great soul (the supreme personality)! You are true to your promise, omniscient (all-knowing), all-viewing and endowed with (supreme) understanding. [Valmiki Ramayana, 2.106.6]

Was it first time Bhagavan Shri Krishna imparted the imperishable knowledge of Gita to Arjuna?

Gita was preached long before Shri Krishna imparted this knowledge to Arjuna in Dvapar Yuga. In the beginning of creation, It was first preached by Bhagavan Narayana to Sun god, Sun god taught this to Manu, Manu transmitted this to Ikshvaku, and thus it came down in the sun-dynasty in disciplic succession to King-sages. And Bhagavan Shri Rama, the Aadi-Narayana himself, the all knowing Supreme Being, again preached Gita to Bharat Ji in Valmiki-Ramayana and to Lakshmana Ji in Shri Ramcharitmanas. After a long time this supreme science was lost due to long laspe of time. Therefore, Lord has to speak again the supreme science of Gita, and He preached in his Sri Krishna-Avatar to Arjuna.

Parampara of Gita:

श्री भगवानुवाच
इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवानहमव्ययम्।
विवस्वान् मनवे प्राह मनुरिक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत्।।
[भगवद्गीता 4.1]

The Blessed Lord said - (In the beggining of the creation) I imparted this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan, Vivasvan taught this to Manu, and Manu transmitted this to Iksavaku. (Thus it came down through sun-dynasty.) [Gita 4.1]

एवं परम्पराप्राप्तमिमं राजर्षयो विदुः।
स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परन्तप।।
[भगवद्गीता 4.2]

The king-sages (Rajarshi) knew this supreme science (yoga) which was received thus in regular succession. That Yoga, O destroyer of foes, in now lost owing to a long lapse of time. ।।Gita 4.2।।

स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः।
भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतदुत्तमम्।।
[भगवद्गीता 4.3]

That self-same ancient Yoga itself has been taught to you by Me today, considering that you are My devotee and friend, For, this (Yoga) is a profound secret. [Gita 4.2]

Thus Sri Bhagavan again restored the imperishable knowledge of Gita in this world for all of his devotees.

Parampara of Gita

Bhagavan Shriman Narayana

Sun God (Vivasvan)



King-sages of Ikshvaku Dynasty
(the dynasty of Bhagavan Shri Rama)

Bhagavan Shri Rama


Bhagavan Shri Krishna

Hanuman Ji

(Maharshi Ved-Vyasa compiled it in Mahabharat for all of us. From mouth of Sri Krishna, It is said only Hanuman Ji, the best among learned, could understand Gita completely.)

Coming to the message of Gita, The परम-तात्पर्य (real message and conclusion) of Gita is Prapatti-Yoga (Sharanagati-Yoga) which lies there in its Charama-Shloka 18.66 ' सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज।' and other verses such as 'ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम्। Gita 4.11।।', 'निवासः शरणं सुहृत्।।Gita 9.18।।', ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते।।Gita7.19।।', तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत।।Gita18.62।।'.

How to learn this Prapatti-Yoga from Gita? One may spend his/her whole life-span in just keep abandoning all (varieties of) duties, still a life-span would be felt short, not enough! Here one would have to take refuge of Ramayana to learn Prapatti-Yoga, and Ramayana is also called Sharanagati-Veda, where from the beginning to the end there are several examples of Prapatti. People can learn all 6 kinds of Sharanagati as taken by different people into lotus feet of Shri Ram in Ramayana e.g. (Sharanagati with आनुकूल्य संकल्प by) Bharat Ji, (with प्रतिकूल-वर्जन by) Lakshman Ji, (through गोप्तृत्व-वरण by) Surgriva, (with महा-विश्वास by) Angad Ji, (with कार्पण्य by) Vibhishan Ji and (through आत्म-निक्षेप by) Shri Hanuman Ji.

Sharanagati is the message of Vedas, Ramayana and Gita, however it is completely elaborated in Shrimad Ramayana, this is the reason Vedavatar Valmiki Ramayan is also called as the Sharanagati-Veda. Be it bird or animal, men or demon all have taken Sharanagati (refuge) of Shri Ram in Ramayana. The most compassionate lord Sri Rama out of his causeless mercy brought whole Ayodhya in his supreme abode!

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