Śrī Rāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa

The one same supreme-being, Parabrahm Śrī Rāma assumes many forms for leelā, in all his forms He is one same Brahm Śrī Rāma. Among all the avataras of Bhagavān Śrī Rāma, Bhagavān Śrī Rāma and Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa are central figures and two most popular Avatāras in Sanātan Dharma. Vaidic scriptures in true essence (तत्वतः), don't take any difference between Bhagavān Śrī Rāma, and Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa. They both are same absolute one, the same supreme entity (Tattva तत्त्व).

Lord Śrī Rama and Lord Śrī Krishna, both are glorified as 'Swayam-Bhagavān' and the ultimate cause of everything (Sarva-Kāraṇ-Kāraṇam) in scriptures, both are Avatārī-Puruṣha from whom many other Bhagavad-Swarupas (forms of Lord Hari) are manifested. Śrī Padma-Purāṇa says ― It is like from one original candle, many other candles are illuminated which have same light and power to illuminate other".

Brahman (the supreme absolute one denoted by name 'Rāma' directly) is one, yet he has three aspects as per cause (Kāraṇ) and effect (Kārya) consideration (Kārya-Kāraṇ Bheda):
― One is Kārya-Brahman, like innumerable Viṣhṇu-s. (1st type)
― One is Kāraṇ-Brahman, like Kāraṇ-Jalaśhāyī Śrī Nārāyaṇ, Sarva-Kāraṇ-Kāraṇam Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is the cause of all the causes .(2nd type)
― And beyond these two, there is Kārya-Kāraṇataḥ Param (means the most Supreme Brahman who is beyond all Kārya and Kāraṇa concept, who is superior than Sarva-Karan-Karanam Brahman and Karya Brahman).
As per Śrī Padma-Purāṇa, This most superior Brahman is Bhagavān Śrī Rāma of Sāket-Loka. (3rd type)

Thus, Bhagavān Śrī Rāma is the original form of Bhagavān, Parā-Brahman or Paramātmā, He is the avatari of all Bhagavad Swarupa. Here Pramāṇas (evidences) are quoted from Āgama-Nigama-Itihās-Purāṇa, etc.

Śrī Rāma, the original personality of godhead and the source of all incarnations


Sudarśana-saṃhitā

राघवस्य गुणो दिव्यो महाविष्णुः स्वरुपवान् ।
वासुदेवो घनीभूतस्तनुतेजः सदाशिवः ॥
मत्स्यश्च रामहृदयं योगरुपी जनार्दनः ।
कुर्मश्चाधारशक्तिश्च वाराहो भुजयोर्बलं॥
नारसिंहो महाकोपो वामनः कटिमेखला।
भार्गवो जंङ्घयोर्जातो बलरामश्च पृष्ठतः॥
बौद्धस्तु करुणा साक्षात् कल्किश्चित्तस्य हर्षतः ।
कृष्णः शृङ्गाररुपश्च वृन्दावनविभूषणः ॥
ऐते चांशकलाः सर्वे रामो ब्रह्म सनातनः ।
(सुदर्शनसंहिता)

rāghavasya guṇō divyō mahāviṣṇuḥ svarupavān ।
vāsudēvō ghanībhūtastanutējaḥ sadāśivaḥ ॥
matsyaśca rāmahṛdayaṃ yōgarupī janārdanaḥ ।
kurmaścādhāraśaktiśca vārāhō bhujayōrbalaṃ ॥
nārasiṃhō mahākōpō vāmanaḥ kaṭimēkhalā।
bhārgavō jaṃṅghayōrjātō balarāmaśca pṛṣṭhataḥ॥
bauddhastu karuṇā sākṣāt kalkiścittasya harṣataḥ ।
kṛṣṇaḥ śṛṅgārarupaśca vṛndāvanavibhūṣaṇaḥ ॥
aitē cāṃśakalāḥ sarvē rāmō brahma sanātanaḥ ।
(sudarśan saṃhitā)

“श्री राघव के जो अनंत दिव्य-गुण हैं वही श्रीमहाविष्णु हैं, उनका कल्याणकारी घनीभूत तेज वासुदेव हैं, श्रीराम का हृदय मत्स्य, आधारशक्ति कूर्म, बाहुबल वराह, महाक्रोध नारसिंह, कटिमेखला वामन, जंघा परशुराम, पृष्ठ-भाग बलराम, बौद्ध साक्षात् करुणा, चित्त का हर्ष कल्कि है, और श्रीकृष्ण वृन्दावनबिहारी श्रीराम के शृङ्गारस्वरूप हैं। इस प्रकार ये सभी भगवान श्रीराम के अंश एवं कला अवतार हैं, और प्रभु श्रीराम स्वयं अंशी हैं, स्वयं सनातन-ब्रह्म हैं।”

“The infinite auspicious divine qualities of Bhagavān Śrī Rāma takes the form of Mahā-Vishṇu. Śrī Rāma's auspicious condensed divine splendour is Lord Vāsudeva, Matsya-avatār (the fish incarnation) appeared from Śrī Rāma's heart, Kurma-avatār (the tortoise-incarnation) is the manifestation of his support power, Varāha (the divine boar incarnation) is the manifestation of his arm's strength. Lord Narsimha is manifestation of his anger, Lord Vamana appears from his waist, Lord Parashurāma appears from his thighs, Buddha appears from his compassion, Kalki appears from his delight, and Vṛndāvan-Vihārī Śrī Kṛṣṇa himself is his Śhṛiṅgār-Swarupa (the Mādhurya-incarnarion of Bhagavān Śrī Rāma). Thus, all these incarnations are parts (Aṃśha) and Kalā-s of Bhagavān Śrī Rāma, and Śrī Rāma is Amshi (the origin), the eternal-Brahman.”


Agastya-saṃhitā

यथा सर्वावताराणामवतारी रघूत्तमः ।
तथा स्त्रोतसां सौम्या पाविनी सरयू सरित ॥
(अगस्त्य-संहिता, उत्तरार्ध)

yathā sarvāvatārāṇāmavatārī raghūttamaḥ ।
tathā strōtasāṃ saumyā pāvinī sarayū sarita ॥
(agastya-saṃhitā, uttarārdha)

“जिस प्रकार श्रीराम सभी अवतारों में अवतारी पुरुष हैं, उसी तरह सरयू समस्त पवित्र नदियों में सबसे पाविनी सौम्य नदी है।”


स्कन्द-पुराण में कहा गया है जो फल मथुरा में कल्प-भर निवास करने से प्राप्त होता है, वो फल सरयू के दर्शन मात्र से प्राप्त हो जाता है। अगस्त्य-संहिता कों वेद-तुल्य प्रमाण माना जाता है, सभी प्राचीन विद्वानों ने इसे उद्धृत किया है, श्रीमध्वाचार्य ने भी अगस्त्य-संहिता से प्रमाण दिया है।

“Śrī Rāma, the best among the Raghus, is the original personality of Godhead, among all the incarnations; in the same way as the divine river Sarayu is most auspicious among all auspicious rivers!”


It is said like this in Skand-Purana, the fruits one attains after living an aeon in Mathura and other holy regions, the same can be attained just upon a sight of Sarayu. The Agastya-Samhitā is taken as Pramāna (evidence) in category of Vedas, and it is quoted by several ancient scholars including Śrī Madhvāchārya.

वेदवेद्ये परेपुंसि जाते दशरथात्मजे ।
वेदः प्राचेतसादासीत् साक्षाद्रामायणात्मना ॥
(अगस्त्य-संहिता)

vēdavēdyē parēpuṃsi jātē daśarathātmajē।
vēdaḥ prācētasādāsīt sākṣād-rāmāyaṇātmanā ॥
(agastya-saṃhitā)

“वेदों से जाने-जानेवाले परम-पुरुष ने जब साक्षात् दशरथ-पुत्र के रूप में प्रकट हुए, तब सभी वेद भी (उस परम-पुरुष के गुणगान हेतु) प्रचेता-मुनि के पुत्र वाल्मीकि के मुख से साक्षात् रामायण के रूप में प्रकट हो गए।”

“The Supreme being who is known through Vedas, When that Supreme being born directly as the son of Maharaja Dasratha in Ayodhya, that time all the Vedas manifested themselves through the mouth of sage Valmiki, the son of Prachetus, directly as the Rāmāyaṇā.”


This is also Maṅgalācharaṇ-Shloka of Śrī Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇā.


Sadāśiva-saṃhitā

यो वै वसति गोलोके द्विभुजस्तु धनुर्धर: ।
सदानन्दमयो रामो येन विश्वमिदं ततम् ॥
(सदाशिवसंहिता)

yō vai vasati gōlōkē dvibhujastu dhanurdharah ।
sadānandamayō rāmō yēna viśvamidaṃ tatam ॥
(sadāśiva-saṃhitā)

“गोलोक-वासी प्रभु (श्रीकृष्ण) द्विभुज श्रीराम धनुर्धारी के हीं अवतार हैं, प्रभु श्रीराम सत्-चित्-आनन्दमय हैं और यह सारा चराचर जगत उन्हीं के द्वारा-प्रकाश्य है।”

“One who resides in Goloka (i.e. Krishna) is none other than the incarnation of the two armed Śrī Rāma who wields Bow and arrow in his hands. The two armed Śrī Rāma is very form of the supreme eternal bliss, and from him this entire cosmos came into existence. Śrī Rāma has pervaded the entire creation.”

How did Śrī Rāma agree to take incarnation of Vṛndāvan-Vihārī Śrī Kṛṣṇa?

In Śrī Rāmāvatār, the Mādhurya-leelā of Bhagavān Śrī Rāma is very secret; Only his close friends (Sakhā and Sakhis), eternal-retinues (Nitya-Pārṣhadas), intimate devotees and servants were fortunate to relish and participate in his Mādhurya-Leelā.

Śrī Rāma is the ocean of beauty-elegance-and-charm, therefore seeing his matchless beauty, sages, female companions of Śrī Sītā, female-demons, etc lost their heart on Bhagavān Śrī Rāma. Many of them were accepted and allowed by Bhagavān Śrī Rāma in his secret Mādhurya-leelā. There were also such souls who desired Bhagavan for their self-pleasure, while Bhagavān is attained by pure love only, therefore all merciful Bhagavān gave them boon to appear in his next-incarnation.


Sages of Daṇḍakāraṇya enchanted at all attractive and dazzling beauty of Śrī Rāma

Seeing divine matchless transcendental beauty of Shri Ram, sages of Daṇḍakāraṇya wished to embrace Śrī Rāma in the mood of conjugal love. Therefore, Śrī Rāma gave boons to all that he will incarnate himself in Dvāpar yuga as Śrī Kṛṣṇa to fulfill their wishes.

Hare Rama Hare Krishna हरे राम हरे कृष्ण

Śrī Rāma incarnated as Śrī Kṛṣṇa

From kṛṣṇa-Upanishada
(कृष्ण उपनिषद) :

यो रामः कृष्णतामेत्य सार्वात्म्यं प्राप्य लीलया ।
अतोषयद्देव्मौनिपटलं तं नतोऽस्म्यहम् ॥१॥

yō rāmaḥ kṛṣṇatāmētya sārvātmyaṃ prāpya līlayā ।
atōṣayaddēvmaunipaṭalaṃ taṃ natō'smyaham ॥1॥

That Śrī Rāma, who having transformed himself as Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Who attained Sārvātmya* by his very līlā (divine pastimes); and thus deities-sages-masses were completely satisfied on this earth. I make prostration before that same Śrī Rāma.

Sārvātmyam: means becoming the life and soul of everyone. The whole world was transformed as Śrī Rāma's world, Śrī Rāma was the most aggreable to everyone. No one was interested into talking anything else other than Śrī Rāma and Śrī Rāma only, and his stories. Śrī Rāma was so dearest to all that every creature felt their own soul moving in the form of Śrī Rāma, outside their body.

रामभूतं जगाभूद्रामे राज्यं प्रशासति ॥
रामो रामो राम इति प्रजानामभवन् कथाः ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.१२८.१०३)

rāmabhūtaṃ jagābhūdrāmē rājyaṃ praśāsati ॥
rāmō rāmō rāma iti prajānāmabhavan kathāḥ ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.128.103)

“While Śrī Rāma ruled the kingdom, the talks of the people centered round Śrī Rāma, Śrī Rāma and Śrī Rāma alone! The world became Śrī Rāma's world.”

This is called 'Sārvātmyam' becoming life, and soul of everyone.

This is called 'Sarvaatmaktaa' becoming delight to the whole world.

further, from Śrī Krishna-Upanishad (कृष्ण उपनिषद) :

प्रथम खंड

हरिः ॐ श्रीमहाविष्णुं सच्चिदानन्दलक्षणं रामचन्द्रं ।
दृष्ट्वा सर्वाङ्गसुन्दरं मुनयो वनवासिनो विस्मिता बभूवुः ॥
तं होचुर्नोऽवद्यमवतारान्वै गण्यन्ते आलिङ्गामो भवन्तमिति ।
भवान्तरे कृष्णावतारे यूयं गोपिका भूत्व मामालिङ्गथ॥
अन्ये येऽवतारास्ते हि गोपा न स्त्रीश्च नो कुरु अन्योन्यविग्रहम्।
धार्यं तवाङ्गस्पर्शनादिह शाश्वतस्पर्शयितास्माकं गृण्हीमोऽवतारान्वयम् ॥१॥

“The forest-dwelling sages (of Daṇḍakāraṇya) beholding the all handsome, the all attractive Lord Śrī Rāmachandra who is MahāViṣhṇu (of Sāket) himself, who is Sachchidānanda Brahman, were bedazzled with surprise! On beholding the transcendental beauty of Śrī Rāma, they forgot their very own existence.

Then, the Sages said to Lord Śrī Rām: O' all attractive Lord, we are counted in having inferior births (as we have fallen in the birth cycle), still we wish to embrace you.

Then Lord Śrī Rāma to sages: Let all of you embrace me (Shri Rāma; मामालिङ्गथ), after you become Gopikas (cowherd women) in (my next incarnation) Śrī Kṛṣṇāvatāra.

To this sages requested: please don't make us born as Gopa or Stri (woman). (Thus, the sages pleaded and insisted with Lord in love that) We will manifest only if you grant us a constant touch of Your divine body there.”

(Here Sages craved for तवाङ्गस्पर्शन, means the touch of Śrī Rāma's divine beautiful body, not for the body of any other personality. )

रुद्रादीनां वचः शृत्वा प्रोवाच भगवान् स्वयम्
अङ्गयङ्गं करिष्यामि भवद्वाक्यं करोम्यहम् ॥२॥

rudrādīnāṃ vacaḥ śṛtvā prōvāca bhagavān svayam
aṅgayaṅgaṃ kariṣyāmi bhavadvākyaṃ karōmyaham ॥2॥

(Seeing the sages getting boon from supreme Lord, Rudra and other Devas also started praying Śrī Rāma to let them participate in his Krishna-Avatar Leela too.)
“After hearing the prayers of Rudra and other devas, the Svayam-Bhagavān (भगवान् स्वयम्) Śrī Rāma told them I will fulfill your wishes, I shall make you all my associates in my next incarnation as Śrī Kṛṣṇā and will grant you the touch of my body.”

Thus as per Shri Krishna-Upanishad shruti, it was all attractive Śrī Rām who incarnated himself as Śrī Krishna in Dwapar Yuga. 'Rāmastu Bhagavān Swayam (रामस्तु भगवान् स्वयं, Śrī Rāma is himself Svayam-Bhagavan)' and 'Lord Krishna is incarnation of Shri Rāma', both these are confirmed here in Shri Krishna-Upanishad.

Śrī Rāma gave boon to the sages that they will touch him, not any second personality. Thus, the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is a form (avatara) of Śrī Rāma.

Adhyātm Rāmāyaṇa : Śrī Kṛṣṇa an incarnation of Śrī Rāma

Lord Brahmā prays to Śrī Rāma and says 'You will appear as the cowherd leader Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Dvāpara-Yuga'.

मायातीतं माधवमाद्यं जगदादि मायाधीशं मोहविनाशं मुनिवन्द्यम् ।
योगिध्येयं योगविधानं परिपूर्ण वंदे रामं रञ्जितलोकं रमणीयम् ॥2॥

māyātītaṃ mādhavamādyaṃ jagadādi māyādhīśaṃ mōhavināśaṃ munivandyam ।
yōgidhyēyaṃ yōgavidhānaṃ paripūrṇa vaṃdē rāmaṃ rañjitalōkaṃ ramaṇīyam ॥2॥

“I consistently bow to Śrī Rāma, Who is beyond the worldly creations, is slayer Madhu-demon, is the beginning of this world, is Lord of Māyā, destroys attachment and passion, is reverred by sages, is sought by knowledge-seekers and is the knowledge-sought as well, is Paripūrṇa* (perfect and complete in every way), Who pleases the world, and is exquisitely beautiful.”

त्वं मे नाथो नाथितकार्याखिलकारि मानातीतो माधवरुपोखिलधारी ।
भक्त्या गम्यो भाविरुपो भवहारी योगाभ्यासैर्भाविचेतःसहचारी ॥5॥

tvaṃ mē nāthō nāthitakāryākhilakāri mānātītō mādhavarupōkhiladhārī ।
bhaktyā gamyō bhāvirupō bhavahārī yōgābhyāsairbhāvicētaḥsahacārī ॥5॥

“O Śrī Rāma, You are my Lord, You lead me to towards finish of my deeds, You are beyond measure, You will born as Madhav (Krishna), You possess everything, You are attained by devotion and devotee, You absolve the fear of world among us by your appearance, and You are understood and attained by the practice of Yoga.”

को वा ज्ञातुं त्वामतिमानं गतमानं मानासक्तो माधवशक्तो मुनिमान्यम् ।
वृन्दारण्ये वन्दितवृन्दाकरवृन्दम् वन्दे रामं भवमुखवन्द्यं सुखकन्दम् ॥7॥

kō vā jñātuṃ tvāmatimānaṃ gatamānaṃ mānāsaktō mādhavaśaktō munimānyam ।
vṛndāraṇyē vanditavṛndākaravṛndam vandē rāmaṃ bhavamukhavandyaṃ sukhakandam ॥7॥

“O Lord! You are beyond the present, the visible, and the proofs derived from them. [In that case] which worldly creature can try to or completely understand You [or reason You out]? You are without second, without a comparison, and revered unquestionably by the best of philosophers. I bow to Śrī Rām, Who is glorified and worshiped by Lord Shiva, Who is cloud of happiness, and Who will be cow-herd leader Śrī Kṛṣṇa, revered by Gop-Gopis of Vṛndāvanam. .

Thus as per Adhyātm Rāmāyaṇa, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is an incarnation of Śrī Rāma.

Śrīmad Vālmikī Rāmāyana: Śrī Kṛṣṇa an incarnation of Sarvāvatārī Śrī Rāma

Śrīmad Vālmikī Rāmāyana is the most authoritative scripture (in Vishishtadvaita-Vaishnavism), Lord Brahmā himself told 'there is not a grain of untruth present in Śrī Vālmikī Rāmāyana'.

After Śrī Rām killed Rāvaṇa, then Lord Brahmā appeared and did Stuti of Śrī Rāma. He eulogized Shri Rāma in various ways, Lord Brahma mentions Śrī Nārāyana, Śrī Viṣṇu, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Śrī Varāha, Śrī Vāmana, Śrī Hṛiṣhikeśa, etc., as the various forms (Avatāras) of Sarvāvatārī Bhagavān Śrī Rāma.

सहस्रशृङ्गो वेदात्मा शतशीर्षो महर्षभः॥
त्वं त्रयाणां हि लोकानामादिकर्ता स्वयम्प्रभुः।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.१८)

sahasraśṛṅgō vēdātmā śataśīrṣō maharṣabhaḥ॥
tvaṃ trayāṇāṃ hi lōkānāmādikartā svayaṃ-prabhuḥ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.18)

“O' Lord Śrī Rāma, You are the Vedātmā (soul of Vedas), You are the great Bull (dharma) in form of Veda with hundred heads (rules) and thousand horns (precepts). You are the first creator of all the three worlds, and You are the Svayam-Prabhu, the self constituted Lord of all (स्वयम्प्रभुः). You are the refuge and the forbear of Siddhas (a class of demi-gods endowed with mystic powers by virtue of their very birth) and Sādhyas (a class of celestial beings).”

Here Purusha-Sukta of Vedas is confirmed for Vedātmā Bhagavān Śrī Rāma. The Purusha-Sukta is the 90th Sukta in the 10th Maṇdala of Rigveda. Purusha Sukta is in praise of the Supreme personality of the godhead. So here Śrī Rāma is eulogized as the original Pradhan-Purusha (the supreme personality of godhead) of Vedas.

*स्वयम्प्रभुः Svayam-Prabhu: which means there is no cause of Śrī Rāma, Śrī Rāma is the self-constituted God of all, the cause of all causes, The most superior.

त्वं यज्ञ्स्त्वं वषट्कारस्त्वमोंकारः परात्परः ॥
प्रभवं निधनं वा ते नो विदुः को भवानिति ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.२०)

tvaṃ yajñstvaṃ vaṣaṭkārastvamōṃkāraḥ parātparaḥ ॥
prabhavaṃ nidhanaṃ vā tē nō viduḥ kō bhavāniti ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.20)

“O' Śrī Rām, You are the sacrificial performance (यज्ञ्स्त्वं, In Rig Veda, Supreme Lord Visnu is told as Yajna. यज्ञो वै विष्णु: (ऋगवेद , शतपथ ब्राह्मण 1।1।2।13). You are the sacred syllable 'Vashaṭ' (on hearing which the Adhvaryu priest casts the oblation to a deity into the sacrificial fire). You are the mystic syllable 'AUM' (ॐ). You are higher than the highest. People neither know your end nor your origin nor who you are in reality.”

- यज्ञो वै विष्णु: ( शतपथ 1.1.1.2, तै.ब्रा.1.2.5.40)

Here, Śrī Rām is told as Yajna (त्वं यज्ञ्स्त्वं ), the sacrificial performance.

- Śrī Rāma is ॐ.

- परात्परः : Śrī Rām is the higher than even the highest, He is the most superior. No one is beyond Śrī Rāma.

Śrī Rām is is origin of all, the cause of all causes.

अक्षरं ब्रह्म सत्यं च मध्ये चान्ते च राघव ॥
लोकानां त्वं परो धर्मो विष्वक्सेनश्चतुर्भजः ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.१४)

akṣaraṃ brahm satyaṃ ca madhyē cāntē ca rāghava ॥
lōkānāṃ tvaṃ parō dharmō viṣvaksēnaścaturbhajaḥ ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.14)

“O' Rāghava, You are the imperishable brahm, the Supreme truth abiding in the beggining, in the middle as well as at the end. You are the supreme Dharma (refuge) of all the worlds, whose powers go everywhere. You are the four-armed.”

In next verse of VR - 6.117.28, Lord Brahma says that Śrī Rāma is Śrī Kṛṣṇa, as same like it is said in Adhyātma Rāmāyaṇa.

शार्ङ्गधन्वा हृषीकेशः पुरुषः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥
अजितः खड्गधृग्विष्णुः कृष्णश्चैव महाबलः ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.१५)

śārṅgadhanvā hṛṣīkēśaḥ puruṣaḥ puruṣōttamaḥ ॥
ajitaḥ khaḍgadhṛgviṣṇuḥ kṛṣṇaścaiva mahābalaḥ ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.15)

“O' Śrī Rām, You are the wielder of a bow called Sarnga, You are Hṛṣīkēśa the Lord of the senses, the supreme soul of the universe (पुरुषः /पुरुषोत्तमः), the best of Puruṣa-s, the invincible, the wielder of a sword named Nandaka, You are the all-pervader (Viṣṇu), You are Lord Krishna (It means : O' Sri Rama, You are Krishna of Goloka, and You will incarnate yourself as Lord Krishna in Dwāpar Yuga) and endowed with great might.”

* पुरुषोत्तमः : Śrī Rām is Purushottamah, The supreme soul of the universe. As Śrī Rām is known as Purushottam in Vedas and all Vaidic texts. Śrī Rāma is thus the cause of all causes, no one is beyond him.

* कृष्ण : Śrī Rām is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lord Śrī Rāma is परात्पर अक्षरं ब्रह्म, the Parambrahman who takes incarnation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is actually the Mādhurya incarnation of Lord Śrī Rām.

Lord Brahmā prays to Śrī Rāma that He will incarnate as Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

भवान्नारायणो देवः श्रीमांश्चक्रायुधः प्रभुः ॥
एकशृङ्गो वराहस्त्वं भूतभव्यसपत्नजित् ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.१३)

bhavānnārāyaṇō dēvaḥ śrīmāṃścakrāyudhaḥ prabhuḥ ॥
ēkaśṛṅgō varāhastvaṃ bhūtabhavyasapatnajit ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.13)

“O' Śrī Rāma, You are the Lord Nārāyaṇa himself the glorious god, who wields the discus (Chakra). You are the Divine Boar (Varāha) with a single tusk, You are the conqueror of Your past and future enemies.”

त्वया लोकास्त्रयः क्रान्ताः पुरा स्वैर्विक्रमैस्त्रिभिः ॥
महेन्द्रश्च कृतो राजा बलिं बद्ध्वा सुदारुणम् ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.२७)

“O' Śrī Rām, the three worlds were occupied by you in your three strides in the past by You (in form of Trivikrama Vāmana), after binding the exceptionally formidable Bali (the ruler of the three worlds) and Indra was made the king by you.”

- The aforementioned verse VR-6.117.27 says about Vāmana incarnation of Lord Śrī Rām.

Lord Brahmā again reiterates in Verse 6.117.28, that O' Śrī Rām, You are Śrī Kṛṣṇa himself.

सीता लक्ष्मीर्भवान् विष्णुर्देवः कृष्णः प्रजापतिः ॥
वधार्थं रावणस्येह प्रविष्टो मानुषीं तनुम् ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.२८)

sītā lakṣmīrbhavān viṣṇurdēvaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ prajāpatiḥ ॥
vadhārthaṃ rāvaṇasyēha praviṣṭō mānuṣīṃ tanum ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.28)

“O Śrī Rāma, Sītā is Lakshmi (the divine consort of Lord Viṣhṇu), while You are Lord Viṣhṇu. You are Lord Kṛṣṇa. You are the Lord of created beings. For the destruction of Ravana, You entered the human-world, on this earth.”

In above verses, Lord Brahmā has taken the names of almost all major incarnations of Lord Śrī Rāma. That's why Śrī Rām is taken as the original personality of godhead परात्पर ब्रह्म, the origin of all the incarnations like Śrī Nārāyana, Śrī Viṣṇu, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Śrī Varāha, Śrī Hṛiṣhikeśa, etc.

Śrī Rāma is the source of all the expansions of Śrī Viṣṇu, and among all his incarnations Śrī Kṛṣṇa is almost same like Lord Śrī Rāma who is Bhagavan himself (Krishnastu Bhagvan Swayam). It means Śrī Kṛṣṇa has higher proximity to Lord Śrī Rāma than any other incarnation.

Who is the Purusha of Veda-s?

The Purusha-Sukta is confirmed for Bhagavān Śrī Rāma by Lord Brahmā in Śrī Valmīki Rāmāyaṇa verse 6.117.18.

Purusha is described as the highest in the Vedas, Upanishads, Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, and other scriptures.

From Katha Upanishad:

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्बुद्धेरात्मा महान्परः ॥10॥
महतः परमव्यक्तमव्यक्तात्पुरुषः परः ।
पुरुषान्न परं किंचित्सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः ॥11।
(कठोपनिषत् - 1.3.10, 11)

indriyēbhyaḥ parā hyarthā arthēbhyaśca paraṃ manaḥ ।
manasastu parā buddhirbuddhērātmā mahānparaḥ ॥10॥
mahataḥ paramavyaktamavyaktātpuruṣaḥ paraḥ ।
puruṣānna paraṃ kiṃcitsā kāṣṭhā sā parā gatiḥ ॥11।
(kaṭhōpaniṣad - 1.3.10, 11)

“The sense-objects are higher than the senses, and the mind is higher than the objects, but the intellect is higher than the mind, and the great soul is higher than the intellect. The Unmanifested (Avaykta) is higher than Mahat and, the Purusa is higher than the manifested. There is nothing higher than Purusa. He is the culmination. He is the highest goal.”

Therefore, There is nothing higher than the Puruṣa (वेद-पुरुष). So, who is the Pursuha? We can get the clear answer from Rāmāyaṇa.

In Śrī Valmīki Rāmāyaṇa verse 6.90.72, Śrī Lakṣhmaṇa calls (Prays) Śrī Rām as Puruṣha as if Puruṣha culminates only in Śrī Rāma to get Indrajita killed by his arrow. He didn't pray to anyone else other than Śrī Rāma. Indrajita was becoming invincible to even Śrī Lakṣhmaṇa. After a long battle, Śrī Lakṣhmaṇa finally invoked the arrow with such words: if Śrī Rām is the Purusha who is unequaled, the highest god of Vedas then kill Indrajita.

धर्मात्मा सत्यसन्धश्च रामो दाशरथिर्यदि ॥
पौरुषे चाप्रतिद्वन्द्वस्तदेनं जहि रावणिम् ।
(श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण ६.९०.७१ख-७२क)

dharmātmā satyasandhaśca rāmō dāśarathiryadi ॥
pauruṣē cāpratidvandvastadēnaṃ jahi rāvaṇim ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.90.71B-72A)

“O my dear arrow! If Śrī Rāma the son of Dasaratha is righteous, always keep his promise and if Śrī Rām is second to none in his Paurusha (prowess) (As if Purusa culminates only in Śrī Rāma), then destroy this Indrajit.”

Lo! That arrow invoked with supreme truth immediately chopped off the head of Indrajit! Thus, Śrī Lakṣhmaṇa slayed Indrajita.

Again, there are many instances where Śrī Rām is eulogized as Purusha, Purushottamah in Śrī Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa.

शार्ङ्गधन्वा हृषीकेशः पुरुषः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥
अजितः खड्गधृग्विष्णुः कृष्णश्चैव महाबलः ।
(श्री वाल्मीकि रामायण ६.११७.१५)

śārṅgadhanvā hṛṣīkēśaḥ puruṣaḥ puruṣōttamaḥ ॥
ajitaḥ khaḍgadhṛgviṣṇuḥ kṛṣṇaścaiva mahābalaḥ ।
(śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 6.117.15)

(Here Brahma eulogizes Śrī Rām as Puruṣa, the highest.)

“O' Śrī Rāma, You are the wielder of a bow called Śārṅga, You are Hṛṣīkēśa the Lord of the senses, You are Puruṣa the supreme soul of the universe, (पुरुषः /पुरुषोत्तमः), the Supreme among men, the invincible, the wielder of a sword named Nandaka, You are the all-pervading supreme-being (Viṣṇu), You are Śrī Kṛṣṇa (i.e. You will incarnate yourself as Śrī Kṛṣṇa), and You are the one who has supreme might.”

Thus, Śrī Rām is called as Puruṣa (पुरुषः) and also Puruṣhottama (पुरुषोत्तम).

In Śrī Bhagvad-Gītā, Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa says -

उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः।
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः॥
(गीता १५.१७)

uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmētyudāhṛtaḥ।
yō lōkatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ॥
(Gītā 15.17)

“(Beyond the Kṣhara and Akṣhara,) The Supreme-Person (Uttama-Puruṣha) is someone else (i.e. Śrī Rāma), who is thus called Paramātmā (the supreme ātma), the imperishable Lord Himself, who has entered the three worlds and is sustaining them.”

Here in Gītā 15.17, Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa employs the word ‘anya’ (someone else) for the ‘uttamaḥ puruṣa’ (the Supreme-Person) instead of ‘aham’ (I, Śrī Kṛṣṇa). Therefore, here that ‘Uttama-Puruṣha’, the superior-person is ‘anya’ someone else is indicative of Śrī Rāma as the other (tu anya), Who is Paramātman (paramātmā iti udāhṛtaḥ). This states the Paratva of Śrī Rāma, for Śrī Rāma is renowned by the word Purushottama (Uttama-Purusha).

यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥
(गीता १५.१८)

yasmāt kṣaram atīto ’ham akṣarād api cottamaḥ ।
ato ’smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ ॥
(Gītā 15.17)

“Because I (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) transcend the perishable (Kṣhara, mutable) and am also higher than the imperishable (Akṣhara, immutable), therefore I am declared as the Supreme-Person (Purushottama) in the world (i.e. Smriti-text Śrīmad Rāmāyaṇam) and in the Veda.”

Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa is telling that I am popular as Purushottamah in the world as well as in the Vedas.

Here, Śrī Kṛṣṇa accepts his proximity (because Uttam Puruṣha, the most superior is someone else [Gītā 15.17]) to Śrī Rāma as only Śrī Rāma is Known as Purushottam in the world (i.e. Smriti-text Śrīmad Rāmāyaṇam) and Vedas. It also establishes that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is incarnation of Purushottam Śrī Rāma, and among all the incarnations Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa is most proximate (by his form also) to Bhagavān Śrī Rāma.

Bhagavad Śrī Rāmānand in his Ānanda-Bhāṣhya on Śvetāsvatar Upanishad just quotes this verse for Śrī Rāma-Paratvam without any comment. Bhagavad Śrī Rāmānuja and Śrī Shankarāchārya refer Śrī Viṣṇu (Nārāyaṇa) for Anyatva of (i.e. someone else being) the Uttama-Purusha and said Śrī Kṛṣṇa is avatāra of Śrī Viṣṇu.

In the commentary over this verse, Śrī Vedānt-Deśika quotes Śrīmad Rāmāyaṇam ―

तथाऽऽदिकाव्येन च
तेन विना निद्रां लभते पुरुषोत्तमः । (श्रीवाल्मीकि रामायण १.१८.३०)

tathā'ādikāvyēna ca
tēna vinā nidrāṃ labhatē puruṣōttamaḥ । (śrī vālmīki rāmāyaṇa 1.18.30)

In the Ādi-Kāvya (Śrī Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa), it is said ―
“Puruṣōttama (Śrī Rāma) doesn't get sleep without him (Śrī Lakṣhmaṇa).”

(For Śrī Vedānt-Deśika of Śrī Rāmānuja-Sampradāya, Bhagavān Śrī Rāma is the original personality of godhead [Para-Viṣhṇu] present in the Paravyom Ayodhyā.)

Over this verse, Ācārya Śrī Śhivasahāy, the great commentator of Śrī Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa says ―

रामादन्यत्रोपलब्धपुरुषोत्तमशब्दार्थस्तु पुरुष: परमपुरुषो राम एव उत्तमो यस्मादिति ।

The meaning of the word Purushottama that occurs elsewhere without reference to Śrī Rāma may be understood as: "Śrī Rāma alone is the Param-Purusha who is superior (uttama) than others".

The Purushottam word in its true sense is employed for Śrī Rāma, It is like a proper noun for him.

Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa discoursed Śrī Bhagvad-Gītā after situating himself through Yoga on his higher form i.e. Śrī Rāma.

It is evident from Ashvamedha-Parva, Mahābhārata where Śrī Kṛṣṇa says to Arjuna :-

स हि धर्मः सुपर्याप्तॊ ब्रह्मणः पदवेदने ।
न शक्यं तन मया भूयस तथा वक्तुम अशेषतः ॥
परं हि ब्रह्म कथितं यॊगयुक्तेन तन मया ।
(Mahābhārata, Ashvamedha-parva 16.11,12A)

“O' Arjuna, It is not possible for me (i.e. I am not willing), to repeat, in detail, all that I said on that occasion in the battle field. That Supreme religion (Bhagvad-Gītā) about which I discoursed to You then (in the battle-field) is more than sufficient for understanding Brahman. I discoursed to thee on Supreme Brahman, having concentrated myself in Yoga (Yoga means his inherent divine-power).”

Not Possible for me - is in the sense of Bhagavān is not willing to repeat the same.

Supreme Personality of godhead, Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is non-different from Bhagavān Śrī Rāma, doesn't have to do any Yoga, Here Yoga means h is own inseparable Yogic-power for leelā. He said to Arjuna that He discoursed Bhagvad-Gītā having concentrated Himself through Yoga on His most superior form of Brahman. From other authorities like Śrīmad Rāmāyaṇam, That form is none other than the Purushottam Śrī Rāma Himself! No other meaning is possible. Lord Shiva or others can't be taken here, for they are not renowned as Puruṣōttama in Loka (Smriti) and Vedas, He is Śrī Rāma who is renowned as Puruṣōttama everywhere, in Loka and Vedas as well.

Shodash Nāma-MahāMantra:

हरे राम हरे राम राम राम हरे हरे।
हरे कृष्ण हरे कृष्ण कृष्ण कृष्ण हरे हरे ॥

harē rāma harē rāma rāma rāma harē harē।
harē kṛṣṇa harē kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa harē harē॥


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॥ श्रीसीतारामचन्द्रार्पणमस्तु ॥